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Effective Writing
Connectives
Introduction|Macro Features|Micro Features|Summary

Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words that are used within sentences to join clauses or parts of a sentence together.

Conjunctions
Word
Functions
Words Example Sentences
Adding
information

and




or
The writer has used techniques such as informal language and personal anecdotes in order to persuade the reader.
The writing would be more suitable for this context if it used either an academic writing style or more technical examples.
Contrasting
information

but

yet



although


even though



while



whereas


despite
The writer used a formal academic style but also included personal anecdotes in order to persuade the reader.
The writer used informal language yet a more formal style is required in this context.
The writer included personal anecdotes although examples of a more technical nature would have been more appropriate.
The writer uses an informal style even though this technique is unsuitable for the academic context.
The writer included personal anecdotes while examples of a more technical nature would have been more appropriate.
The writer used informal language whereas more formal language is required in this context.
The writer included personal anecdotes despite the traditional conventions of academic writing disallowing this technique.
Comparing
information
and


like


as


both...and
Sensory memory and working memory have a limit upon the duration they can maintain stimuli.
Sensory memory, like working memory, has a limit upon the duration it can maintain stimuli.
Sensory memory, as is the case with working memory, has a limit upon the duration it can maintain stimuli.
Both sensory memory and working memory have a limit upon the duration they can maintain stimuli.
Ordering
information
by time

after


before


since


when
Students were expected to hand in typed assignments after many computers became available on campus.
Few students typed their assignments before computers became available on campus.
The number of typed assignments has increased dramatically since many computers became available on campus.
Students were expected to hand in typed assignments when many computers became available on campus.
Causation/
reasoning
because


as


since


now that


for

The conclusion is flawed because the survey failed to use a random sampling technique.
The conclusion is flawed as the survey failed to use a random sampling technique.
The conclusion is flawed since the survey failed to use a random sampling technique.
The conclusion must be rejected now that it has been revealed random sampling was not followed.
The conclusion must be rejected for it has been revealed that random sampling was not followed.
Conditional if



unless



in case


provided that
The conclusion must be rejected if random sampling techniques were not used in the administration of the survey.
The conclusion will be accepted unless the administration of the survey was flawed.
The team is ready to administer another survey in case the results of the first were flawed.
The conclusion will be accepted provided that the administration of the survey was not flawed.
Exemplifying
information
such as




for example
The writer has used techniques such as informal language and personal anecdotes in order to persuade the reader.
The team can administer several surveys simultaneously; for example intelligence and aptitude tests are usually done together.

*This list is not exhaustive - but it should give a few ideas about conjunction words you can use.

References:
Ascher, A. (1993) Think About Editing: A Grammar Editing Guide for ESL Writers. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers

Oshima, A. & Hogue, A. (1991) Writing Academic English (2nd Ed). California: Addison Wesley. Pp.39-40

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