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Academic Writing

Reference List1

To provide full details of your source information you should provide a reference list or bibliography at the end of your assignment. A reference list refers to all the books, articles and web sites that you actually referred to in your assignment. A bibliography refers to all the material you read in preparation for your assignment, even those you did not provide direct or indirect quotations from. Your lecturer or tutor will instruct you on whether your assignments require a reference list or a bibliography. The reference list or bibliography must be set out in the particular format required by your discipline or department. Below is an example of a reference list that would be attached to the end of your assignment.

Gould, S.J. 1977, Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press.

Lovejoy, C.O. 1980, 'The origin of man', Science, vol. 211, pp.340-350.

book titles and journal names are in are in italics. (If handwriting your assignment, use underlining).

Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S. 1986, Ape Language: From conditioned response to symbol. New York: Columbia University Press.

hanging indents: in these examples hanging indents have been used; however, this is not an essential requirement.

Wolpoff, M.H., Zhi, W.X. & Thorne, A.G. 1984, 'Modern homo sapiens origins: A general theory of hominid evolution involving the fossil evidence from South-East Asia'. In F.H. Smith & F. Spencer. (Eds.) The Origins of modern humans New York: Alan R. Liss Inc.

Article and chapter titles are in plain text within single quotation marks.

In a reference list,

bullet sources are listed alphabetically by the surname of the author

bullet when reference is made to more than one work by and author/s, list them chronologically, ending with the most recent work.

1 Reference: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1995, Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers, 5th edn., Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

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