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Referencing
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Harvard System: Other conventions in referencing1

While the examples above highlight the main ways of referencing, issues such as the number of authors or repeated references to the same author complicate the conventions of referencing. Some of these are explained below.

bullet You may see variations on how the information in brackets is presented.

For example, 'p.' or 'pp.' may be used to represent the page number/s.

Owners of a firm are regarded as external parties (Martin 1988, p.7).

Matthews claims that environmental accounting provides the only realistic methods of cost/benefit analysis (1989, pp. 87-88).

An alternative method is to place a colon ':' after the publication but before the page number/s.

Owners of a firm are regarded as external parties (Martin 1988:7).

Matthews claims that environmental accounting provides the only realistic methods of cost/benefit analysis (1989:87-88).

bullet Multiple authors

If you want to cite two or more references on the same point, you should put them all within the same set of brackets, but separate them with a semi-colon.

This pattern is evident in many businesses in Indonesia (Wilder et al. 1990, p23; Burnett and Tan 1995, p87).

The references within the brackets can be listed either chronologically or alphabetically (just be consistent with the way you choose to do this throughout the whole piece of writing).

bullet Using ampersands

Use an ampersand [&] to replace 'and' when listing two or more authors in brackets.

The high degree of entrenched inequality is evident in many layers of society (Hones & Smith 1991; Hones, Smith & Carey 1992).

However, use 'and' when referring to two or more authors in the text.

Hones and Smith (1991) maintained that inequality is evident in many layers of society while Hones, Smith and Carey (1992) developed on this work looking in particular at gender inequality in society.

bullet For works with more than three authors: using 'et al.'

After your initial reference to a work with three or more authors, you may just include the name of the first author followed by the abbreviation 'et al.', which is a Latin term meaning 'and others'.

First reference to work (full reference):

Ewer, Smith and Keane state that the rationale of the free market is essentially opposed to the collective nature of unionism in the labour market (1991, p1).

Second and subsequent references to the work (abbreviation et al. can be used):

Ewer et al. regard the social and collective action undertaken by unions as an attempt to tame free market forces (1991, p3).

bullet For multiple works by the same author

When referring to an idea presented in more than one work by the same author, the year of publication for each relevant work is given in the in text reference. List them chronologically, ending with the most recent work.

Matthews (1989, 1991) claims that environmental accounting provides the only realistic methods of cost/benefit analysis.

Supporters of unionism regard social and collective action as essential softening the harsh forces of the free labour market (Collins 1989, p24; 1993, p65).

bullet For works with the same author and year

When you are referring to two or more publications with the same author/s and year, these should be distinguished by attaching lower case alpabetical letters attached to the publication date. The order of the letters is established on the basis of a letter-by-letter alphabetical order of the title (disregarding any initial articles such as the or a); for example, the following references:

Larkin, J., McDermott, J., Simon, D. P, & Simon, H. A. (1980). Models of competence in solving physics problems. Cognitive Science, 11, 65-99.

Larkin, J., McDermott, J., Simon, D. P., & Simon, H. A. (1980). Expert and Novice Performance in solving physics problems. Science, 208, 1335-1342.

would be labelled in the reference list as:

Larkin, J., McDermott, J., Simon, D. P., & Simon, H. A. (1980a). Expert and Novice Performance in solving physics problems. Science, 208,1335-1342.

Larkin, J., McDermott, J., Simon, D. P, & Simon, H. A. (1980b). Models of competence in solving physics problems. Cognitive Science, 11,65-99.

and in the text as:

Verbal protocols were collected from participants formed the basis for the development of several computer programs which mimicked the strategies experts and novices used to solve problems (Larkin, McDermott, Simon and Simon, 1980b). Larkin McDermott, Simon and Simon (1980a) claim that novices typically use a means end problem solving strategy. The management of goals and subgoals in this general problem solving heuristic places a considerable burden on limited working memory, in some way accounting for the longer period of time required by novices for problem completion (Larkin et al, 1980a; 1980b)

bullet Authors with the same name

If there are two authors with the same surname, include the author's initials in all text citations and the reference list to avoid confusion.

A recent report (MacDuff, H.E. 1998) has indicated the average standard of living is falling in Australia but J.L. MacDuff (1999) has refuted the findings.

[Note the placement of the initials. When the reference is enclosed in brackets, they come after the surname but when the reference is included in the text, they come before the surname.]

 

bullet For secondary citations

When referring to an author's idea which was presented in the work of another author, give the name of the original presenter of the idea, followed by 'cited in' and the author, date and page of the work in which it was quoted. A secondary citation looks and is less credible than a primary citation, but if access to the primary resource is not available you may need to use it. Include only the primary source in your reference list.

Trung (cited in Le 1976, p20) suggests that the implications of the action are more far reaching than was originally thought.

OR

It has been suggested that the implications of the action are more far reaching than was originally thought (Trung cited in Le, 1976, p20).

 

bullet For works with no author given

When the name of the author is not given, the name of the article, the date and the page should be provided in the in-text reference.

This pattern is evident in many businesses in Indonesia (Far Eastern Economic Review 28/1/97, p12).

Use the name of the sponsoring organisation if there is no specific author's name on the title page.

Although improving, the status of women in many aspects of life is far lower than that of men (National Women's Advisory Council 1979, p3).

In this financial year, 8893 unemployed persons had participated in the Government’s compulsory ‘work for the dole’ scheme (DETYA 2000, p45).

bullet For ideas communicated personally

When referring to an idea presented to you personally in a formal (eg. lecture) or informal (eg. conversation, email) context, use the abbreviation for 'personal communication' as in the example below. Personal communications are not listed in the references.

The rate of infant mortality in these countries appears to be falling (Bronska 1998, pers. comm.).

bullet Unusual or non existent publication dates

No publication date:

Tomasi (n.d.) laments the state of the country's welfare services.

Unpublished work:

Tomasi (unpub.) laments the state of the country's welfare services.

Not yet in the process of being published:

Tomasi (forthcoming) laments the state of the country's welfare services.

Currently in the process of being published:

Tomasi (in press) laments the state of the country's welfare services.

Approximate publication date: use the abbreviation 'c' taken from circa which means about.

Nisbet (c. 1799) showed seed dispersal was a result of ants.

Doubtful publication date

Hawkins (? 1886) confirmed the sea navigation skills of the Melanesian sailors.

Click here for information on conventions guiding references in Reference Lists

1 Reference: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1995, Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers, 5th edn., Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.



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