Examples of introduction sections
A example of a good introduction to a biology report
| Worldwide, many bacteria are showing
resistance to antibiotics. This is becoming a major problem for
health care professionals; for example, multiple strains of a potentially
deadly bacteria, Staphylococcus aureas, are already resistant to
all antibiotics except vancomycin. The reports of vancomycin resistant
strains of S. aureas, which appeared from three different areas
of the globe last year, sent shock waves through the medical community
Escherichia coli (E..coli) is another bacteria
that is beginning to show signs of antibiotic resistance. E.coli
is a rod shaped bacteria which inhabits the human colon, living
off organic material which would otherwise be eliminated with the
faeces. E. coli and the other intestinal flora may make up 40% of
the mass of faeces and as a result E. coli is used as an indicator
species to detect contamination of lakes and streams by untreated
sewage. Under normal conditions E. coli is harmless but some strains
can cause blood poisoning, urinary tract infections, diarrhoea and
kidney failure, illnesses that are more common in people who have
weakened immune systems. In
most cases these E. coli infections can be successfully treated
with antibiotics such as ampicillin and chloramphenicol; however,
some of the strains, such as those that cause urinary tract infections,
have been shown to be resistant to certain antibiotics (Morrell,
1997, Levy, 1998). This experiment
aimed to test the sensitivity of four E. coli strains (EC1, EC2,
EC3, EC4), isolated from patients in a local hospital, to the antibiotics,
streptomycin and chloramphenicol. It
was hypothesised that separately both drugs would deter bacteria
growth but that a combination of both drugs would be most effective.
|Broad context (summary of previous
More specific context to this experiment (summary
of previous research)
Significance of the research
Aims of the research
Adapted from Dr Sharon Robinson,
Biology 104, University of Wollongong
An example of a POORLY written introduction to a biology
| Toads and rats are both vertebrates
of similar size. Their physiology, however, is quite different,
as toads are ectothermic and rats are endothermic (Campbell et al.,
1997, pg. 487). Toads regulate their body
temperature through behaviour. Rats have a high metabolic rate.
They maintain their body temperature at 37 degrees Celsius.
In this study, the anatomy of the
toad and rat were investigated.
||Background to the experiment.
Technical words are not defined.
How does this information relate to the previous information? The
presentation of information in the introduction needs to be building
the case for defining the gap in the research this study aims to
Although the aim of the research is outlined
here, the reason for making this comparison has not been established.
The hypothesis or expected result of the research has also not been
A example of a good introduction to an Engineering scientific
|Advanced ceramic materials such as
zirconia have great potential as substitutes for traditional materials
in many engineering applications; however, problems such as difficulties
in producing products of reliable and consistent quality and high
manufacturing costs have thus far restricted their use by engineers.
Difficulties in achieving reliable and consistent quality stem largely
from the formation of thermal gradients that often occurs during
conventional sintering processes. Slow, controlled heating and cooling
rates have been used to solve this problem. While this solution
facilitates the manufacture of high quality components, it does
so at the expense of production rate, and deterioration of the mechanical
properties of the ceramic because of an increase in grain size.
This solution, therefore, achieves quality
at the expense of an economical production rate.
Recently, interest has been growing
in alternative sintering techniques
that could overcome the problem of thermal gradients more economically.
One of the most promising is the use of microwaves to sinter ceramic
compacts. Microwave sintering has many attractive features, including
rapid volumetric heating and low cost. It may have other advantages
as well, as there is some evidence that the mechanical properties
of microwave-sintered ceramics are superior to those of conventionally-sintered
eramics. This superiority has been largely attributed to the smaller
grain sizes resulting from the short, rapid sintering cycle.
Until now, there has been no report of any
systematic study of the microstructures produced by microwave sintering,
or their relationship to the properties of the sintered product.
The aims of this project
were to compare the resultant properties and microstructure with
material sintered by conventional constant heating rate rocesses.
The relationships between density and grain size were studied. It
was predicted that microwave sintering would alter the densification/grain
growth relationship. The effects of heating rate and yttria content
were also investigated. It was predicted that yttria content of
ceramics sintered onventionally or by microwave would not differ.
|Establishing the field
Preparing for present
of the gap
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