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Direct and Indirect Quotes
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Direct Quotation

A direct quotation is one in which you copy an author's words directly from the text and use that exact wording in your essay. Try to use direct quotations sparingly: only use them when they are focused precisely on the point you want to make and are both brief and telling, or where the substance/ wording of the quote is what you wish to address.

When directly quoting, remember the following points:

bullet for a short quotation, use quotation marks " " to indicate that these are someone elses words.

For example:

In fact, Rumelhart suggests that schemata "truly are the building blocks of cognition" (1981: 33).

bullet for quotations longer than three lines, take a new line and indent the quote to separate it from the main text (in this case you do not require quotation marks)

For example:

In fact, Rumelhart suggests that schemata

truly are the building blocks of cognition. They are the fundamental elements upon which all information processing depends. Schemata are employed in the process of interpreting sensory data (both linguistic and non linguistic), in retrieving information from memory, in organising actions, in determining goals and subgoals, in allocating resources, and generally, in guiding the flow of processing in the system (1981: 33-34).

Rumelhart (1981) attempts to unravel the functions of schemas, explaining them through a series of analogies.

bullet when referencing the quote include the page number from which it was taken

For example:

In fact, Rumelhart (1981: 33) suggests that schemata "truly are the building blocks of cognition".

bullet ensure that the grammar of the quote is consistent with the grammar of your sentence

For example:

Incorrect:

Past attempts to deal with organisational conflict problems "lead to the development of integrative and mixed structures such as committees, task forces and matrix structures" (Dawson, 1986:97).

Correct:

Past attempts to deal with organisational conflict problems have led "to the development of integrative and mixed structures such as committees, task forces and matrix structures" (Dawson, 1986:97).

bulletto omit words from the original quote use three period marks ... to indicate that you have removed certain phrases or words

For example:

In fact, Rumelhart asserts that schemata "are the fundamental elements upon which all information processing depends. Schemata are employed ... in allocating resources, and generally, in guiding the flow of processing in the system" (1981: 33-34).

bulletto add words to the original quote use
square brackets [ ]

For example:

In fact, Rumelhart asserts that since schemata "are the fundamental elements upon which all information processing ... [and play a large role] in guiding the flow of processing in the system" (1981: 33-34).

bulletto indicate a grammatical or spelling error in the original quote place (sic) after the error

For example:

In 1845, the explorer, Eyre stated:
Whenever European colonies have been established in Australia, the native races in that neighbourhood rapidly decreasing(sic), and already in some of the older settlements, have totally disappeared (cited in Coupe, 1991).

An example of direct quotation in the context of a paragraph.

an example




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Direct and Indirect Quotes Example Recommended Strategies Introduction