The Harvard or Author-Date or System of Referencing (University of Wollongong preferred)1
The Harvard System of referencing incorporates information on:
the author of the material cited,
the date of publication
and where necessary, the page number(s).
This information is placed in a bracket within the sentence of the idea you are discussing. This information allows the reader to look up the full bibliographic information from the attached reference list.
Harvard style references can be given in three ways:
The rationale of the free market is essentially opposed to the collective nature of unionism in the labour market
Notice the reference comes before the punctuation ending the sentence, in this case, a full stop.
state that the rationale of the free market is essentially opposed to the collective nature of unionism in the labour market .
state that the rationale of the free market is essentially opposed to the collective nature of unionism in the labour market.
The way you decide to refer will depend upon factors such as the authority of the source and whether you wish to focus on the idea rather than the author.
When to include page numbers?
No Page Numbers: When you wish to use an author's central idea or argument, for example, you must cite the author's name and the year of publication, but you may leave out page numbers as the original text will have referred to that central idea many times within the text. This will be the case where you summarise the central argument of an entire article.
Page Numbers: When you refer to just one idea of many in a publication, however, you must include page numbers. This allows your reader in follow-up reading to find what might be a quite small piece of information inside what could be a large article or book. This is often the case with direct quotations or paraphrased sentences/ paragraphs/ sub-sections of an article.
Look at the paragraph below to see how a writer has referenced source material of different kinds.
For more information on the conventions of using quotations.
1 University of Wollongong 2007, Author-Date (Harvard) Referencing Guide, accessed 15/1/2007, http://www.library.uow.edu.au/helptraining/guides/pdfs/citeharvard.pdf
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