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Academic Writing
The Model Texts
Introduction|Words|Structures|Conventions|Summary

For more information on each of these features that affect the formality and academic tone of writing, look at the model texts below. Text A and B introduce the same basic ideas but the formality with which these ideas are presented differs markedly. Read text A and text B, thinking about the difference in academic tone between the two texts.

Click on the links to the formal text and the informal text below. The key devices and features that combine to create the tone of each text are listed and more information on their relationship to academic writing is provided.

Original version
Text A - FORMAL TEXT Text B - INFORMAL TEXT
The inequity in the distribution of wealth in Australia is yet another indicator of Australia's lack of egalitarianism. In 1995, 20% of the Australian population owned 72.2% of Australia's wealth with the top 50% owning 92.1% (Raskall, 1998: 287). Such a significant skew in the distribution of wealth indicates that, at least in terms of economics, there is an established class system in Australia. McGregor (1988) argues that Australian society can be categorised into three levels: the Upper, Middle and Working classes. In addition, it has been shown that most Australians continue to remain in the class into which they were born (McGregor, 1988: 156) despite arguments about the ease of social mobility in Australian society (Fitzpatrick, 1994). The issue of class and its inherent inequity, however, is further compounded by factors such as race and gender within and across these class divisions. Because only a few people have most of the money and power in Australia, I conclude that it is not an equal society. Society has an Upper, Middle and Lower class and I think that most people when they are born into one class, end up staying in that class for their whole lives. When all three classes are looked at more closely, other things such as the differences between the sexes and people's racial backgrounds also add to the unequal nature of Australian society.
The relative disadvantage of women with regard to their earnings and levels of asset ownership indicates that within classes there is further economic inequity based on gender... Women earn less than men and own less than men. Why is this so?

 

Formal Text Informal Text

 



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